An Architecture for Federated Video Processing and Online Streaming
Supervisor(s) and Committee member(s): Shervin Shirmohammadi (supervisor), Mohamed Hefeeda (external examiner), Abdulmotaleb El Saddik (internal examiner)
Today access to video is available via numerous multimedia enabled devices through a wide variety of network types. What is required is a mechanism to ensure that users can receive different qualities of video proportional to their device capabilities and network conditions. In this thesis, we propose an online adaptive video streaming approach which uses the Peer-to-Peer (P2P) paradigm to not only distribute the content using peers’ bandwidth, but also adapt the video using peers’ processing power, while taking into account receiver heterogeneity, watermarking, and perceptual encryption.
The proposed adaptive video streaming architecture aims at online video adaptation with streaming in P2P overlays to serve heterogeneous devices including small handhelds. Participating peers therefore contribute with both bandwidth and CPU power. We used the MPEG-21 generic Bitstream Syntax Description (gBSD) as a content metadata format and implemented a 3-in-1 adaptation-watermarking-encryption system for compressed-domain adaptation of video in a P2P fashion. Simulation is used to manifest that the design is robust, reliable, and suitable for multi-participant real-time collaboration and real-life deployment. System performance is validated against an analytical model also developed in the thesis.
The specific contributions made in this thesis are:
- A P2P adaptive streaming architecture supporting simultaneous adaptation and streaming of video contents:
- The adaptive video streaming architecture utilizes content metadata and compressed-domain video processing techniques to meet real-time video adaptation needs.
- A mathematical model for the adaptive video streaming design to find the optimum solution at a given time:
- The model is based on the Linear Programming problem and considers the relationship among all parameters that affect the efficiency of the streaming, and computes the trade-offs that exist between service fairness and system efficiency.
- A taxation-based minimum contribution scheme:
- Minimum contribution requirement ensures that resources allocated to serve a peer are commensurate with that peer’s contribution rate.
- A concept of fairness constraint is also introduced to ensure maximum service response by enabling equal service distribution to all the participating peers.
- A compressed-domain spatial and temporal video adaptation scheme:
- Joint spatiotemporal adaptations are evaluated to observe the real-time performance of the proposed compressed-domain adaptation mechanism.
- A digital watermarking based authentication scheme.
- A perceptual encryption scheme:
- Both the authentication and encryption schemes can be operated in an intermediary node along with the adaptation operations. The encryption scheme is also spatiotemporal adaptation resilient.
Distributed and Collaborative Virtual Environment Research Lab (DISCOVER Lab), University of Ottawa, Canada
Research at the DISCOVER Lab is directed towards the enhancement of next generation human-human communication through advanced multimedia technology and virtual environments. Through our many projects, we are developing new ideas and technology that will make easy-to-use virtual environments a reality. Research projects at the DISCOVER lab typically fall into the following categories:
- Networked Games and Collaborative Virtual Environments
- Multimedia Systems and Applications
- 3D Physical Modelling and Animation
- Intelligent Sensor Networks and Ubiquitous Computing
- Haptics and Teleoperation
- Multimedia-Assisted Biomedical Engineering