MPEG Column: 126th MPEG Meeting in Geneva, Switzerland

The original blog post can be found at the Bitmovin Techblog and has been modified/updated here to focus on and highlight research aspects.

The 126th MPEG meeting concluded on March 29, 2019 in Geneva, Switzerland with the following topics:

  • Three Degrees of Freedom Plus (3DoF+) – MPEG evaluates responses to the Call for Proposal and starts a new project on Metadata for Immersive Video
  • Neural Network Compression for Multimedia Applications – MPEG evaluates responses to the Call for Proposal and kicks off its technical work
  • Low Complexity Enhancement Video Coding – MPEG evaluates responses to the Call for Proposal and selects a Test Model for further development
  • Point Cloud Compression – MPEG promotes its Geometry-based Point Cloud Compression (G-PCC) technology to the Committee Draft (CD) stage
  • MPEG Media Transport (MMT) – MPEG approves 3rd Edition of Final Draft International Standard
  • MPEG-G – MPEG-G standards reach Draft International Standard for Application Program Interfaces (APIs) and Metadata technologies

The corresponding press release of the 126th MPEG meeting can be found here: https://mpeg.chiariglione.org/meetings/126

Three Degrees of Freedom Plus (3DoF+)

MPEG evaluates responses to the Call for Proposal and starts a new project on Metadata for Immersive Video

MPEG’s support for 360-degree video — also referred to as omnidirectional video — is achieved using the Omnidirectional Media Format (OMAF) and Supplemental Enhancement Information (SEI) messages for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). It basically enables the utilization of the tiling feature of HEVC to implement 3DoF applications and services, e.g., users consuming 360-degree content using a head mounted display (HMD). However, rendering flat 360-degree video may generate visual discomfort when objects close to the viewer are rendered. The interactive parallax feature of Three Degrees of Freedom Plus (3DoF+) will provide viewers with visual content that more closely mimics natural vision, but within a limited range of viewer motion.

At its 126th meeting, MPEG received five responses to the Call for Proposals (CfP) on 3DoF+ Visual. Subjective evaluations showed that adding the interactive motion parallax to 360-degree video will be possible. Based on the subjective and objective evaluation, a new project was launched, which will be named Metadata for Immersive Video. A first version of a Working Draft (WD) and corresponding Test Model (TM) were designed to combine technical aspects from multiple responses to the call. The current schedule for the project anticipates Final Draft International Standard (FDIS) in July 2020.

Research aspects: Subjective evaluations in the context of 3DoF+ but also immersive media services in general are actively researched within the multimedia research community (e.g., ACM SIGMM/SIGCHI, QoMEX) resulting in a plethora of research papers. One apparent open issue is the gap between scientific/fundamental research and standards developing organizations (SDOs) and industry fora which often address the same problem space but sometimes adopt different methodologies, approaches, tools, etc. However, MPEG (and also other SDOs) often organize public workshops and there will be one during the next meeting, specifically on July 10, 2019 in Gothenburg, Sweden which will be about “Coding Technologies for Immersive Audio/Visual Experiences”. Further details are available here.

Neural Network Compression for Multimedia Applications

MPEG evaluates responses to the Call for Proposal and kicks off its technical work

Artificial neural networks have been adopted for a broad range of tasks in multimedia analysis and processing, such as visual and acoustic classification, extraction of multimedia descriptors or image and video coding. The trained neural networks for these applications contain a large number of parameters (i.e., weights), resulting in a considerable size. Thus, transferring them to a number of clients using them in applications (e.g., mobile phones, smart cameras) requires compressed representation of neural networks.

At its 126th meeting, MPEG analyzed nine technologies submitted by industry leaders as responses to the Call for Proposals (CfP) for Neural Network Compression. These technologies address compressing neural network parameters in order to reduce their size for transmission and the efficiency of using them, while not or only moderately reducing their performance in specific multimedia applications.

After a formal evaluation of submissions, MPEG identified three main technology components in the compression pipeline, which will be further studied in the development of the standard. A key conclusion is that with the proposed technologies, a compression to 10% or less of the original size can be achieved with no or negligible performance loss, where this performance is measured as classification accuracy in image and audio classification, matching rate in visual descriptor matching, and PSNR reduction in image coding. Some of these technologies also result in the reduction of the computational complexity of using the neural network or can benefit from specific capabilities of the target hardware (e.g., support for fixed point operations).

Research aspects: This topic has been addressed already in previous articles here and here. An interesting observation after this meeting is that apparently the compression efficiency is remarkable, specifically as the performance loss is negligible for specific application domains. However, results are based on certain applications and, thus, general conclusions regarding the compression of neural networks as well as how to evaluate its performance are still subject to future work. Nevertheless, MPEG is certainly leading this activity which could become more and more important as more applications and services rely on AI-based techniques.

Low Complexity Enhancement Video Coding

MPEG evaluates responses to the Call for Proposal and selects a Test Model for further development

MPEG started a new work item referred to as Low Complexity Enhancement Video Coding (LCEVC), which will be added as part 2 of the MPEG-5 suite of codecs. The new standard is aimed at bridging the gap between two successive generations of codecs by providing a codec-agile extension to existing video codecs that improves coding efficiency and can be readily deployed via software upgrade and with sustainable power consumption.

The target is to achieve:

  • coding efficiency close to High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Main 10 by leveraging Advanced Video Coding (AVC) Main Profile and
  • coding efficiency close to upcoming next generation video codecs by leveraging HEVC Main 10.

This coding efficiency should be achieved while maintaining overall encoding and decoding complexity lower than that of the leveraged codecs (i.e., AVC and HEVC, respectively) when used in isolation at full resolution. This target has been met, and one of the responses to the CfP will serve as starting point and test model for the standard. The new standard is expected to become part of the MPEG-5 suite of codecs and its development is expected to be completed in 2020.

Research aspects: In addition to VVC and EVC, LCEVC is now the third video coding project within MPEG basically addressing requirements and needs going beyond HEVC. As usual, research mainly focuses on compression efficiency but a general trend in video coding is probably observable that favors software-based solutions rather than pure hardware coding tools. As such, complexity — both at encoder and decoder — is becoming important as well as power efficiency which are additional factors to be taken into account. Other issues are related to business aspects which are typically discussed elsewhere, e.g., here.

Point Cloud Compression

MPEG promotes its Geometry-based Point Cloud Compression (G-PCC) technology to the Committee Draft (CD) stage

MPEG’s Geometry-based Point Cloud Compression (G-PCC) standard addresses lossless and lossy coding of time-varying 3D point clouds with associated attributes such as color and material properties. This technology is appropriate especially for sparse point clouds.

MPEG’s Video-based Point Cloud Compression (V-PCC) addresses the same problem but for dense point clouds, by projecting the (typically dense) 3D point clouds onto planes, and then processing the resulting sequences of 2D images with video compression techniques.

G-PCC provides a generalized approach, which directly codes the 3D geometry to exploit any redundancy found in the point cloud itself and is complementary to V-PCC and particularly useful for sparse point clouds representing large environments.

Point clouds are typically represented by extremely large amounts of data, which is a significant barrier for mass market applications. However, the relative ease to capture and render spatial information compared to other volumetric video representations makes point clouds increasingly popular to present immersive volumetric data. The current implementation of a lossless, intra-frame G-PCC encoder provides a compression ratio up to 10:1 and acceptable quality lossy coding of ratio up to 35:1.

Research aspects: After V-PCC MPEG has now promoted G-PCC to CD but, in principle, the same research aspects are relevant as discussed here. Thus, coding efficiency is the number one performance metric but also coding complexity and power consumption needs to be considered to enable industry adoption. Systems technologies and adaptive streaming are actively researched within the multimedia research community, specifically ACM MM and ACM MMSys.

MPEG Media Transport (MMT)

MPEG approves 3rd Edition of Final Draft International Standard

MMT 3rd edition will introduce two aspects:

  • enhancements for mobile environments and
  • support of Contents Delivery Networks (CDNs).

The support for multipath delivery will enable delivery of services over more than one network connection concurrently, which is specifically useful for mobile devices that can support more than one connection at a time.

Additionally, support for intelligent network entities involved in media services (i.e., Media Aware Network Entity (MANE)) will make MMT-based services adapt to changes of the mobile network faster and better. Understanding the support for load balancing is an important feature of CDN-based content delivery, messages for DNS management, media resource update, and media request is being added in this edition.

On going developments within MMT will add support for the usage of MMT over QUIC (Quick UDP Internet Connections) and support of FCAST in the context of MMT.

Research aspects: Multimedia delivery/transport is still an important issue, specifically as multimedia data on the internet is increasing much faster than network bandwidth. In particular, the multimedia research community (i.e., ACM MM and ACM MMSys) is looking into novel approaches and tools utilizing exiting/emerging protocols/techniques like HTTP/2, HTTP/3 (QUIC), WebRTC, and Information-Centric Networking (ICN). One question, however, remains, namely what is the next big thing in multimedia delivery/transport as currently we are certainly in a phase where tools like adaptive HTTP streaming (HAS) reached maturity and the multimedia research community is eager to work on new topics in this domain.

MPEG Column: 125th MPEG Meeting in Marrakesh, Morocco

The original blog post can be found at the Bitmovin Techblog and has been modified/updated here to focus on and highlight research aspects.

The 125th MPEG meeting concluded on January 18, 2019 in Marrakesh, Morocco with the following topics:

  • Network-Based Media Processing (NBMP) – MPEG promotes NBMP to Committee Draft stage
  • 3DoF+ Visual – MPEG issues Call for Proposals on Immersive 3DoF+ Video Coding Technology
  • MPEG-5 Essential Video Coding (EVC) – MPEG starts work on MPEG-5 Essential Video Coding
  • ISOBMFF – MPEG issues Final Draft International Standard of Conformance and Reference software for formats based on the ISO Base Media File Format (ISOBMFF)
  • MPEG-21 User Description – MPEG finalizes 2nd edition of the MPEG-21 User Description

The corresponding press release of the 125th MPEG meeting can be found here. In this blog post I’d like to focus on those topics potentially relevant for over-the-top (OTT), namely NBMP, EVC, and ISOBMFF.

Network-Based Media Processing (NBMP)

The NBMP standard addresses the increasing complexity and sophistication of media services, specifically as the incurred media processing requires offloading complex media processing operations to the cloud/network to keep receiver hardware simple and power consumption low. Therefore, NBMP standard provides a standardized framework that allows content and service providers to describe, deploy, and control media processing for their content in the cloud. It comes with two main functions: (i) an abstraction layer to be deployed on top of existing cloud platforms (+ support for 5G core and edge computing) and (ii) a workflow manager to enable composition of multiple media processing tasks (i.e., process incoming media and metadata from a media source and produce processed media streams and metadata that are ready for distribution to a media sink). The NBMP standard now reached Committee Draft (CD) stage and final milestone is targeted for early 2020.

In particular, a standard like NBMP might become handy in the context of 5G in combination with mobile edge computing (MEC) which allows offloading certain tasks to a cloud environment in close proximity to the end user. For OTT, this could enable lower latency and more content being personalized towards the user’s context conditions and needs, hopefully leading to a better quality and user experience.

For further research aspects please see one of my previous posts

MPEG-5 Essential Video Coding (EVC)

MPEG-5 EVC clearly targets the high demand for efficient and cost-effective video coding technologies. Therefore, MPEG commenced work on such a new video coding standard that should have two profiles: (i) royalty-free baseline profile and (ii) main profile, which adds a small number of additional tools, each of which is capable, on an individual basis, of being either cleanly switched off or else switched over to the corresponding baseline tool. Timely publication of licensing terms (if any) is obviously very important for the success of such a standard.

The target coding efficiency for responses to the call for proposals was to be at least as efficient as HEVC. This target was exceeded by approximately 24% and the development of the MPEG-5 EVC standard is expected to be completed in 2020.

As of today, there’s the need to support AVC, HEVC, VP9, and AV1; soon VVC will become important. In other words, we already have a multi-codec environment to support and one might argue one more codec is probably not a big issue. The main benefit of EVC will be a royalty-free baseline profile but with AV1 there’s already such a codec available and it will be interesting to see how the royalty-free baseline profile of EVC compares to AV1.

For a new video coding format we will witness a plethora of evaluations and comparisons with existing formats (i.e., AVC, HEVC, VP9, AV1, VVC). These evaluations will be mainly based on objective metrics such as PSNR, SSIM, and VMAF. It will be also interesting to see subjective evaluations, specifically targeting OTT use cases (e.g., live and on demand).

ISO Base Media File Format (ISOBMFF)

The ISOBMFF (ISO/IEC 14496-12) is used as basis for many file (e.g., MP4) and streaming formats (e.g., DASH, CMAF) and as such received widespread adoption in both industry and academia. An overview of ISOBMFF is available here. The reference software is now available on GitHub and a plethora of conformance files are available here. In this context, the open source project GPAC is probably the most interesting aspect from a research point of view.

JPEG Column: 82nd JPEG Meeting in Lisbon, Portugal

The 82nd JPEG meeting was held in Lisbon, Portugal. Highlights of the meeting are progress on JPEG XL, JPEG XS, HTJ2K, JPEG Pleno, JPEG Systems and JPEG reference software.

JPEG has been the most common representation format of digital images for more than 25 years. Other image representation formats have been standardised by JPEG committee like JPEG 2000 or more recently JPEG XS. Furthermore, JPEG has been extended with new functionalities like HDR or alpha plane coding with the JPEG XT standard, and more recently with a reference software. Another solutions have been also proposed by different players with limited success. The JPEG committee decided it is the time to create a new working item, named JPEG XL, that aims to develop an image coding standard with increased quality and flexibility combined with a better compression efficiency. The evaluation of the call for proposals responses had already confirmed the industry interest, and development of core experiments has now begun. Several functionalities will be considered, like support for lossless transcoding of images represented with JPEG standard.

A 2nd workshop on media blockchain technologies was held in Lisbon, collocated with the JPEG meeting. Touradj Ebrahimi and Frederik Temmermans opened the workshop with presentations on relevant JPEG activities such as JPEG Privacy and Security. Thereafter, Zekeriya Erkin made a presentation on blockchain, distributed trust and privacy, and Carlos Serrão presented an overview of the ISO/TC 307 standardization work on blockchain and distributed ledger technologies. The workshop concluded with a panel discussion chaired by Fernando Pereira where the interoperability of blockchain and media technologies was discussed. A 3rd workshop is planned during the 83rd meeting to be held in Geneva, Switzerland on March 20th, 2019.

The 82nd JPEG meeting had the following highlights: jpeg82ndpicS

  • The new working item JPEG XL
  • JPEG Pleno
  • JPEG XS
  • HTJ2K
  • JPEG Systems – JUMBF & JPEG 360
  • JPEG reference software

 

The following summarizes various highlights during JPEG’s Lisbon meeting. As always, JPEG welcomes participation from industry and academia in all its standards activities.

JPEG XL

The JPEG Committee launched JPEG XL with the aim of developing a standard for image coding that offers substantially better compression efficiency when compared to existing image formats, along with features desirable for web distribution and efficient compression of high quality images. Subjective tests conducted by two independent research laboratories were presented at the 82nd meeting in Lisbon and indicate promising results that compare favorably with state of the art codecs.

A development software for the JPEG XL verification model is currently being implemented. A series of experiments have been also defined for improving the above model; these experiments address new functionalities such as lossless coding and progressive decoding.

JPEG Pleno

The JPEG Committee has three activities in JPEG Pleno: Light Field, Point Cloud, and Holographic image coding.

At the Lisbon meeting, Part 2 of JPEG Pleno Light Field was refined and a Committee Draft (CD) text was prepared. A new round of core experiments targets improved subaperture image prediction quality and scalability functionality.

JPEG Pleno Holography will be hosting a workshop on March 19th, 2019 during the 83rd JPEG meeting in Geneva. The purpose of this workshop is to provide insights in the status of holographic applications such as holographic microscopy and tomography, displays and printing, and to assess their impact on the planned standardization specification. This workshop invites participation from both industry and academia experts. Information on the workshop can be find at https://jpeg.org/items/20190228_pleno_holography_workshop_geneva_announcement.html

JPEG XS

The JPEG Committee is pleased to announce a new milestone of the JPEG XS project, with the Profiles and Buffer Models (JPEG XS ISO/IEC 21122 Part 2) submitted to ISO for immediate publication as International Standard.

This project aims at standardization of a visually lossless low-latency and lightweight compression scheme that can be used as a mezzanine codec within any AV market. Among the targeted use cases are video transport over professional video links (SDI, IP, Ethernet), real-time video storage, memory buffers, omnidirectional video capture and rendering, and sensor compression (for example in cameras and in the automotive industry). The Core Coding System allows for visually lossless quality at moderate compression rates, scalable end-to-end latency ranging from less than a line to a few lines of the image, and low complexity real time implementations in ASIC, FPGA, CPU and GPU. The new part “Profiles and Buffer Models” defines different coding tools subsets addressing specific application fields and use cases. For more information, interested parties are invited to read the JPEG White paper on JPEG XS that has been recently published on the JPEG website (https://jpeg.org).

 HTJ2K

The JPEG Committee continues its work on ISO/IEC 15444-15 High-Throughput JPEG 2000 (HTJ2K) with the development of conformance codestreams and reference software, improving interoperability and reducing obstacles to implementation.

The HTJ2K block coding algorithm has demonstrated an average tenfold increase in encoding and decoding throughput compared to the block coding algorithm currently defined by JPEG 2000 Part 1. This increase in throughput results in an average coding efficiency loss of 10% or less in comparison to the most efficient modes of the block coding algorithm in JPEG 2000 Part 1, and enables mathematically lossless transcoding to-and-from JPEG 2000 Part 1 codestreams.

JPEG Systems – JUMBF & JPEG 360

At the 82nd JPEG meeting, the Committee DIS ballots were completed, comments reviewed, and the standard progressed towards FDIS text for upcoming ballots on “JPEG Universal Metadata Box Format (JUMBF)” as ISO/IEC 19566-5, and “JPEG 360” as ISO/IEC 19566-6. Investigations continued to generalize the framework to other applications relying on JPEG (ISO/IEC 10918 | ITU-T.81), and JPEG Pleno Light Field.

JPEG reference software

With the JPEG Reference Software reaching FDIS stage, the JPEG Committee reaches an important milestone by extending its specifications with a new part containing a reference software. With its FDIS release, two implementations will become official reference to the most successful standard of the JPEG Committee: The fast and widely deployed libjpeg-turbo code, along with a complete implementation of JPEG coming from the Committee itself that also covers coding modes that were only known by a few experts.

 

Final Quote

“One of the strengths of the JPEG Committee has been in its ability to identify important trends in imaging technologies and their impact on products and services. I am delighted to see that this effort still continues and the Committee remains attentive to future.” said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

About JPEG

The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is a Working Group of ISO/IEC, the International Organisation for Standardization / International Electrotechnical Commission, (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) and of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T SG16), responsible for the popular JPEG, JPEG 2000, JPEG XR, JPSearch and more recently, the JPEG XT, JPEG XS, JPEG Systems and JPEG Pleno families of imaging standards.

The JPEG Committee nominally meets four times a year, in different world locations. The 82nd JPEG Meeting was held on 19-25 October 2018, in Lisbon, Portugal. The next 83rd JPEG Meeting will be held on 16-22 March 2019, in Geneva, Switzerland.

More information about JPEG and its work is available at www.jpeg.org or by contacting Antonio Pinheiro or Frederik Temmermans (pr@jpeg.org) of the JPEG Communication Subgroup.

If you would like to stay posted on JPEG activities, please subscribe to the jpeg-news mailing list on http://jpeg-news-list.jpeg.org.  

Future JPEG meetings are planned as follows:

  • No 83, Geneva, Switzerland, March 16 to 22, 2019
  • No 84, Brussels, Belgium, July 13 to 19, 2019

 

MPEG Column: 124th MPEG Meeting in Macau, China

The original blog post can be found at the Bitmovin Techblog and has been modified/updated here to focus on and highlight research aspects.

The MPEG press release comprises the following aspects:

  • Point Cloud Compression – MPEG promotes a video-based point cloud compression technology to the Committee Draft stage
  • Compressed Representation of Neural Networks – MPEG issues Call for Proposals
  • Low Complexity Video Coding Enhancements – MPEG issues Call for Proposals
  • New Video Coding Standard expected to have licensing terms timely available – MPEG issues Call for Proposals
  • Multi-Image Application Format (MIAF) promoted to Final Draft International Standard
  • 3DoF+ Draft Call for Proposal goes Public

Point Cloud Compression – MPEG promotes a video-based point cloud compression technology to the Committee Draft stage

At its 124th meeting, MPEG promoted its Video-based Point Cloud Compression (V-PCC) standard to Committee Draft (CD) stage. V-PCC addresses lossless and lossy coding of 3D point clouds with associated attributes such as colour. By leveraging existing and video ecosystems in general (hardware acceleration, transmission services and infrastructure), and future video codecs as well, the V-PCC technology enables new applications. The current V-PCC encoder implementation provides a compression of 125:1, which means that a dynamic point cloud of 1 million points could be encoded at 8 Mbit/s with good perceptual quality.

A next step is the storage of V-PCC in ISOBMFF for which a working draft has been produced. It is expected that further details will be discussed in upcoming reports.

Research aspects: Video-based Point Cloud Compression (V-PCC) is at CD stage and a first working draft for the storage of V-PCC in ISOBMFF has been provided. Thus, a next consequence is the delivery of V-PCC encapsulated in ISOBMFF over networks utilizing various approaches, protocols, and tools. Additionally, one may think of using also different encapsulation formats if needed.

MPEG issues Call for Proposals on Compressed Representation of Neural Networks

Artificial neural networks have been adopted for a broad range of tasks in multimedia analysis and processing, media coding, data analytics, and many other fields. Their recent success is based on the feasibility of processing much larger and complex neural networks (deep neural networks, DNNs) than in the past, and the availability of large-scale training data sets. Some applications require the deployment of a particular trained network instance to a potentially large number of devices and, thus, could benefit from a standard for the compressed representation of neural networks. Therefore, MPEG has issued a Call for Proposals (CfP) for compression technology for neural networks, focusing on the compression of parameters and weights, focusing on four use cases: (i) visual object classification, (ii) audio classification, (iii) visual feature extraction (as used in MPEG CDVA), and (iv) video coding.

Research aspects: As point out last time, research here will mainly focus around compression efficiency for both lossy and lossless scenarios. Additionally, communication aspects such as transmission of compressed artificial neural networks within lossy, large-scale environments including update mechanisms may become relevant in the (near) future.

 

MPEG issues Call for Proposals on Low Complexity Video Coding Enhancements

Upon request from the industry, MPEG has identified an area of interest in which video technology deployed in the market (e.g., AVC, HEVC) can be enhanced in terms of video quality without the need to necessarily replace existing hardware. Therefore, MPEG has issued a Call for Proposals (CfP) on Low Complexity Video Coding Enhancements.

The objective is to develop video coding technology with a data stream structure defined by two component streams: a base stream decodable by a hardware decoder and an enhancement stream suitable for software processing implementation. The project is meant to be codec agnostic; in other words, the base encoder and base decoder can be AVC, HEVC, or any other codec in the market.

Research aspects: The interesting aspect here is that this use case assumes a legacy base decoder – most likely realized in hardware – which is enhanced with software-based implementations to improve coding efficiency or/and quality without sacrificing capabilities of the end user in terms of complexity and, thus, energy efficiency due to the software based solution. 

 

MPEG issues Call for Proposals for a New Video Coding Standard expected to have licensing terms timely available

At its 124th meeting, MPEG issued a Call for Proposals (CfP) for a new video coding standard to address combinations of both technical and application (i.e., business) requirements that may not be adequately met by existing standards. The aim is to provide a standardized video compression solution which combines coding efficiency similar to that of HEVC with a level of complexity suitable for real-time encoding/decoding and the timely availability of licensing terms.

Research aspects: This new work item is more related to business aspects (i.e., licensing terms) than technical aspects of video coding.

 

Multi-Image Application Format (MIAF) promoted to Final Draft International Standard

The Multi-Image Application Format (MIAF) defines interoperability points for creation, reading, parsing, and decoding of images embedded in High Efficiency Image File (HEIF) format by (i) only defining additional constraints on the HEIF format, (ii) limiting the supported encoding types to a set of specific profiles and levels, (iii) requiring specific metadata formats, and (iv) defining a set of brands for signaling such constraints including specific depth map and alpha plane formats. For instance, it addresses use case like a capturing device may use one of HEIF codecs with a specific HEVC profile and level in its created HEIF files, while a playback device is only capable of decoding the AVC bitstreams.

Research aspects: MIAF is an application format which is defined as a combination of tools (incl. profiles and levels) of other standards (e.g., audio codecs, video codecs, systems) to address the needs of a specific application. Thus, the research is related to use cases enabled by this application format. 

 

3DoF+ Draft Call for Proposal goes Public

Following investigations on the coding of “three Degrees of Freedom plus” (3DoF+) content in the context of MPEG-I, the MPEG video subgroup has provided evidence demonstrating the capability to encode a 3DoF+ content efficiently while maintaining compatibility with legacy HEVC hardware. As a result, MPEG decided to issue a draft Call for Proposal (CfP) to the public containing the information necessary to prepare for the final Call for Proposal expected to occur at the 125th MPEG meeting (January 2019) with responses due at the 126th MPEG meeting (March 2019).

Research aspects: This work item is about video (coding) and, thus, research is about compression efficiency.

 

What else happened at #MPEG124?

  • MPEG-DASH 3rd edition is still in the final editing phase and not yet available. Last time, I wrote that we expect final publication later this year or early next year and we hope this is still the case. At this meeting Amendment.5 is progressed to DAM and conformance/reference software for SRD, SAND and Server Push is also promoted to DAM. In other words, DASH is pretty much in maintenance mode.
  • MPEG-I (systems part) is working on immersive media access and delivery and I guess more updates will come on this after the next meeting. OMAF is working on a 2nd edition for which a working draft exists and phase 2 use cases (public document) and draft requirements are discussed.
  • Versatile Video Coding (VVC): working draft 3 (WD3) and test model 3 (VTM3) has been issued at this meeting including a large number of new tools. Both documents (and software) will be publicly available after editing periods (Nov. 23 for WD3 and Dec 14 for VTM3).

 

JPEG Column: 81st JPEG Meeting in Vancouver, Canada

The 81st JPEG meeting was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, at which significant efforts were put into the analysis of the responses to the call for proposals on the next generation image coding standard, nicknamed JPEG XL, that is expected to provide a solution for image format with improved quality and flexibility, allied with a better compression efficiency. The responses to the call confirms the interest of different parties on this activity. Moreover, the initial  subjective and objective evaluation of the different proposals confirm a significative evolution on both quality and compression efficiency that will be provided by the future standard.

Apart the multiple activities related with several standards development, a workshop on Blockchain technologies was held at Telus facilities in Vancouver, with several talks on Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technologies, and a Panel where the influence of these technologies on multimedia was analysed and discussed. A new workshop is planned at the 82nd JPEG meeting to be held in Lisbon, Portugal, in January 2019.

The 81st JPEG meeting had the following highlights:JPEG81VancouverCut

  • JPEG Completes Initial Assessment on Responses for the Next Generation Image Coding Standard (JPEG XL);
  • Workshop on Blockchain technology;
  • JPEG XS Core Coding System submitted to ISO for immediate publication as International Standard;
  • HTJ2K achieves Draft International Status;
  • JPEG Pleno defines a generic file format syntax architecture.

The following summarizes various highlights during JPEG’s Vancouver meeting.

JPEG XL completes the initial assessment of responses to the call for proposals

 The JPEG Committee launched the Next Generation Image Coding activity, also referred to as JPEG XL, with the aim of developing a standard for image coding that offers substantially better compression efficiency than existing image formats, along with features desirable for web distribution and efficient compression of high quality images. A Call for Proposals on Next Generation Image Coding was issued at the 79th JPEG meeting.

Seven submissions were received in response to the Call for Proposals. The submissions, along with the anchors, were evaluated in subjective tests by three independent research labs. At the 81st JPEG meeting in Vancouver, Canada, the proposals were evaluated using subjective and objective evaluation metrics, and a verification model (XLM) was agreed upon. Following this selection process, a series of experiments have been designed in order to compare the performance of the current XLM with alternative choices as coding components including those technologies submitted by some of the top performing submissions; these experiments are commonly referred to as core experiments and will serve to further refine and improve the XLM towards the final standard. 

Workshop on Blockchain technology

On October 16th, 2018, JPEG organized its first workshop on Media Blockchain in Vancouver. Touradj Ebrahimi JPEG Convenor and Frederik Temmermans a leading JPEG expert, presented on the background of the JPEG standardization committee and ongoing JPEG activities such as JPEG Privacy and Security. Thereafter, Eric Paquet, Victoria Lemieux and Stephen Swift shared their experiences related to blockchain technology focusing on standardization challenges and formalization, real world adoption in media use cases and the state of the art related to consensus models. The workshop closed with an interactive discussion between the speakers and the audience, moderated by JPEG Requirements Chair Fernando Pereira.

The presentations from the workshop are available for download on the JPEG website. In January 2019, during the 82nd JPEG meeting in Lisbon, Portugal, a 2nd workshop will be organized to continue the discussion and interact with European stakeholders. More information about the program and registration will be made available on jpeg.org.

In addition to the workshop, JPEG issued an updated version of its white paper “JPEG White paper: Towards a Standardized Framework for Media Blockchain and Distributed Ledger Technologies” that elaborates on the blockchain initiative, exploring relevant standardization activities, industrial needs and use cases. The white paper will be further extended in the future with more elaborated use cases and conclusions drawn from the workshops. To keep informed and get involved in the discussion, interested parties are invited to register to the ad hoc group’s mailing list via http://jpeg-blockchain-list.jpeg.org.

WorkshopBlockChainCut

Touradj Ebrahimi, convenor of JPEG, giving the introductory talk in the Workshop on Blockchain technology.


JPEG XS

The JPEG committee is pleased to announce a significant milestone of the JPEG XS project, with the Core Coding System (aka JPEG XS Part-1) submitted to ISO for immediate publication as International Standard. This project aims at the standardization of a near-lossless low-latency and lightweight compression scheme that can be used as a mezzanine codec within any AV market. Among the targeted use cases are video transport over professional video links (SDI, IP, Ethernet), real-time video storage, memory buffers, omnidirectional video capture and rendering, and sensor compression (for example in cameras and in the automotive industry). The Core Coding System allows for visual transparent quality at moderate compression rates, scalable end-to-end latency ranging from less than a line to a few lines of the image, and low complexity real time implementations in ASIC, FPGA, CPU and GPU. Beside the Core Coding System, Profiles and levels (addressing specific application fields and use cases), together with the transport and container formats (defining different means to store and transport JPEG XS codestreams in files, over IP networks or SDI infrastructures) are also being finalized and their expected submission for publication as International Standard is Q1 2019.

HTJ2K

The JPEG Committee has reached a major milestone in the development of an alternative block coding algorithm for the JPEG 2000 family of standards, with ISO/IEC 15444-15 High Throughput JPEG 2000 (HTJ2K) achieving Draft International Status (DIS).

The HTJ2K algorithm has demonstrated an average tenfold increase in encoding and decoding throughput compared to the algorithm currently defined by JPEG 2000 Part 1. This increase in throughput results in an average coding efficiency loss of 10% or less in comparison to the most efficient modes of the block coding algorithm in JPEG 2000 Part 1, and enables mathematically lossless transcoding to and from JPEG 2000 Part 1 codestreams.

The JPEG Committee has begun the development of HTJ2K conformance codestreams and reference software.

JPEG Pleno

The JPEG Committee is currently pursuing three activities in the framework of the JPEG Pleno Standardization: Light Field, Point Cloud and Holographic content coding.

At the Vancouver meeting, a generic file format syntax architecture was outlined that allows for efficient exchange of these modalities by utilizing a box-based file format. This format will enable the carriage of light field, point cloud and holography data, including associated metadata for colour space specification, camera calibration etc. In the particular case of light field data, this will encompass both texture and disparity information.

For coding of point clouds and holographic data, activities are still in exploratory phase addressing the elaboration of use cases and the refinement of requirements for coding such modalities. In addition, experimental procedures are being designed to facilitate the quality evaluation and testing of technologies that will be submitted in later calls for coding technologies. Interested parties active in point cloud and holography related markets and applications, both from industry and academia are welcome to participate in this standardization activity.

Final Quote

“JPEG XL standard will enable a higher quality content while improving on compression efficiency and offering new features useful for emerging multimedia applications. said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

About JPEG

The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is a Working Group of ISO/IEC, the International Organisation for Standardization / International Electrotechnical Commission, (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) and of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T SG16), responsible for the popular JPEG, JPEG 2000, JPEG XR, JPSearch and more recently, the JPEG XT, JPEG XS, JPEG Systems and JPEG Pleno families of imaging standards.  

The JPEG Committee nominally meets four times a year, in different world locations. The 81st JPEG Meeting was held on 12-19 October 2018, in Vancouver, Canada. The next 82nd JPEG Meeting will be held on 19-25 January 2019, in Lisbon, Portugal.

More information about JPEG and its work is available at www.jpeg.org or by contacting Antonio Pinheiro or Frederik Temmermans (pr@jpeg.org) of the JPEG Communication Subgroup.

If you would like to stay posted on JPEG activities, please subscribe to the jpeg-news mailing list on http://jpeg-news-list.jpeg.org.  

Future JPEG meetings are planned as follows:

  • No 82, Lisbon, Portugal, January 19 to 25, 2019
  • No 83, Geneva, Switzerland, March 16 to 22, 2019
  • No 84, Brussels, Belgium, July 13 to 19, 2019

 

JPEG Column: 80th JPEG Meeting in Berlin, Germany

The 80th JPEG meeting was held in Berlin, Germany, from 7 to 13 July 2018. During this meeting, JPEG issued a record number of ballots and output documents, spread through the multiple activities taking place. These record numbers are very revealing of the level of commitment of JPEG standardisation committee. A strong effort is being accomplished on the standardisation of new solutions for the emerging image technologies enabling the interoperability of different systems on the growing market of multimedia. Moreover, it is intended that these new initiatives should provide royalty-free patent licensing solutions at least in one of the available profiles, which shall promote a wider adoption of these future JPEG standards from the consumer market, and applications and systems developers.

A significant progress in low latency and high throughput standardisation initiatives has taken place at Berlin meetings. The new part 15 of JPEG 2000, known as High Throughput JPEG 2000 (HTJ2K), is finally ready and reached committee draft status. Furthermore, JPEG XS profiles and levels were released for their second and final ballot. Hence, these new low complexity standards foresee to be finalised in a short time, providing new solutions for developers and consumers on applications where mobility is important and large bandwidth is available. Virtual and augmented reality, as well as 360º images and video, are among the several applications that might benefit from these new standards.

Berlin80T1cut

JPEG meeting plenary in Berlin.

The 80th JPEG meeting had the following highlights:

  • HTJ2K reaches Committee Draft status;
  • JPEG XS profiles and levels are under ballot;
  • JPEG XL publishes additional information to the CfP;
  • JPEG Systems – JUMBF & JPEG 360;
  • JPEG-in-HEIF;
  • JPEG Blockchain white paper;
  • JPEG Pleno Light Field verification model.

The following summarizes the various highlights during JPEG’s Berlin meeting.

HTJ2K

The JPEG committee is pleased to announce a significant milestone, with ISO/IEC 15444-15 High-Throughput JPEG 2000 (HTJ2K) reaching Committee Draft status.

HTJ2K introduces a new FAST block coder to the JPEG 2000 family. The FAST block coder can be used in place of the JPEG 2000 Part 1 arithmetic block coder, and, as illustrated in Table 1, offers in average an order of magnitude increase on decoding and encoding throughput – at the expense of slightly reduced coding efficiency and elimination of quality scalability.

Table 1. Comparison between FAST block coder and JPEG 2000 Part 1 arithmetic block coder. Results were generated by optimized implementations evaluated as part of the HTJ2K activity, using professional video test images in the transcoding context specified in the Call for Proposal available at https://jpeg.org.  Figures are relative to JPEG2000 Part1 arithmetic block coder (bpp – bits per pixel).

JPEG 2000 Part 1 Block Coder Bitrate 0.5 bpp 1 bpp 2 bpp 4 bpp 6 bpp lossless
Average FAST Block Coder Speedup Factor 17.5x 19.5x 21.1x 25.5x 27.4x 43.7x
Average FAST Block Decoder Speedup Factor 10.2x 11.4x 11.9x 14.1x 15.1x 24.0x
Average Increase in Codestream Size  8.4%  7.3%   7.1% 6.6%  6.5%  6.6% 

Apart from the block coding algorithm itself, the FAST block coding algorithm does not modify the JPEG 2000 codestream, and allows mathematically lossless transcoding to and from JPEG 2000 codestreams. As a result the FAST block coding algorithm can be readily integrated into existing JPEG 2000 applications, where it can bring significant increases in processing efficiency. 

 

JPEG XS

This project aims at the standardization of a visually lossless low-latency and lightweight compression scheme that can be used as a mezzanine codec for the broadcast industry, Pro-AV and other markets. Targeted use cases are video transport over professional video links (SDI, IP, Ethernet), real-time video storage, memory buffers, omnidirectional video capture and rendering, and sensor compression (in particular in the automotive industry). The Core Coding System, expected to be published in Q4 2018 allows for visually lossless quality at 6:1 compression ratio for most content, 32 lines end-to-end latency, and ultra low complexity implementations in ASIC, FPGA, CPU and GPU. Following the 80th JPEG meeting in Berlin, profiles and levels (addressing specific application fields and use cases) are now under final ballot (expected publication in Q1 2019). Different means to store and transport JPEG XS codestreams in files, over IP networks or SDI infrastructures are also defined and go to a first ballot.

 

JPEG XL

The JPEG Committee issued a Call for Proposals (CfP) following its 79th meeting (April 2018), with the objective of seeking technologies that fulfill the objectives and scope of the Next-Generation Image Coding activity. The CfP, with all related info, can be found in https://jpeg.org/downloads/jpegxl/jpegxl-cfp.pdf. The deadline for expression of interest and registration was August 15, 2018, and submissions to the CfP were due on September 1, 2018. 

As outcome of the 80th JPEG meeting in Berlin, a document was produced containing additional information related to the objective and subjective quality assessment methodologies that will be used to evaluate the anchors and proposals to the CfP, available on https://jpeg.org/downloads/jpegxl/wg1n80024-additional-information-cfp.pdf. Moreover, a detailed workflow is described, together with the software and command lines used to generate the anchors and to compute objective quality metrics.

To stay posted on the action plan of JPEG XL, please regularly consult our website at jpeg.org and/or subscribe to its e-mail reflector.

 

JPEG Systems – JUMBF & JPEG 360

The JPEG Committee progressed towards a common framework and definition for metadata which will improve the ability to share 360 images. At the 80th meeting, the Committee Draft ballot was completed, the comments reviewed, and is now progressing towards DIS text for upcoming ballots on “JPEG Universal Metadata Box Format (JUMBF)” as ISO/IEC 19566-5, and “JPEG 360” as ISO/IEC 19566-6. Investigations have started to apply the framework on the structure of JPEG Pleno files.

 

JPEG-in-HEIF

The JPEG Committee made significant progress towards standardizing how JPEG XR, JPEG 2000 and the upcoming JPEG XS will be carried in ISO/IEC 23008-12 image file container.

 

JPEG Blockchain

Fake news, copyright violation, media forensics, privacy and security are emerging challenges for digital media. JPEG has determined that blockchain technology has great potential as a technology component to address these challenges in transparent and trustable media transactions. However, blockchain needs to be integrated closely with a widely adopted standard to ensure broad interoperability of protected images. JPEG calls for industry participation to help define use cases and requirements that will drive the standardization process. To reach this objective, JPEG issued a white paper entitled “Towards a Standardized Framework for Media Blockchain” that elaborates on the initiative, exploring relevant standardization activities, industrial needs and use cases. In addition, JPEG plans to organise a workshop during its 81st meeting in Vancouver on Tuesday 16th October 2018. More information about the workshop is available on https://www.jpeg.org. To keep informed and get involved, interested parties are invited to register on the ad hoc group’s mailing list at http://jpeg-blockchain-list.jpeg.org.

 

JPEG Pleno

The JPEG Committee is currently pursuing three activities in the framework of the JPEG Pleno Standardization: Light Field, Point Cloud and Holographic content coding.

At its Berlin meeting, a first version of the verification model software for light field coding has been produced. This software supports the core functionality that was indented for the light field coding standard. It serves for intensive testing of the standard. JPEG Pleno Light Field Coding supports various sensors ranging from lenslet cameras to high-density camera arrays, light field related content production chains up to light field displays.

For coding of point clouds and holographic data, activities are still in exploratory phase addressing the elaboration of use cases and the refinement of requirements for coding such modalities. In addition, experimental procedures are being designed to facilitate the quality evaluation and testing of technologies that will be submitted in later calls for coding technologies. Interested parties active in point cloud and holography related markets and applications, both from industry and academia are welcome to participate in this standardization activity.

 

Final Quote 

“After a record number of ballots and output documents generated during its 80th meeting, the JPEG Committee pursues its activity on the specification of effective and reliable solutions for image coding offering needed features in emerging multimedia applications. The new JPEG XS and JPEG 2000 part 15 provide low complexity compression solutions that will benefit many growing markets such as content production, virtual and augmented reality as well as autonomous cars and drones.” said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

 

About JPEG

The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is a Working Group of ISO/IEC, the International Organisation for Standardization / International Electrotechnical Commission, (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) and of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T SG16), responsible for the popular JBIG, JPEG, JPEG 2000, JPEG XR, JPSearch and more recently, the JPEG XT, JPEG XS, JPEG Systems and JPEG Pleno families of imaging standards.

The JPEG Committee nominally meets four times a year, in different world locations. The 80th JPEG Meeting was held on 7-13 July 2018, in Berlin, Germany. The next 81st JPEG Meeting will be held on 13-19 October 2018, in Vancouver, Canada.

More information about JPEG and its work is available at www.jpeg.org or by contacting Antonio Pinheiro or Frederik Temmermans (pr@jpeg.org) of the JPEG Communication Subgroup.

If you would like to stay posted on JPEG activities, please subscribe to the jpeg-news mailing list on http://jpeg-news-list.jpeg.org.  

 

Future JPEG meetings are planned as follows:JPEG-signature

  • No 81, Vancouver, Canada, October 13 to 19, 2018
  • No 82, Lisbon, Portugal, January 19 to 25, 2019
  • No 83, Geneva, Switzerland, March 16 to 22, 2019

MPEG Column: 123rd MPEG Meeting in Ljubljana, Slovenia

The original blog post can be found at the Bitmovin Techblog and has been modified/updated here to focus on and highlight research aspects.

IMG_5700The MPEG press release comprises the following topics:

  • MPEG issues Call for Evidence on Compressed Representation of Neural Networks
  • Network-Based Media Processing – MPEG evaluates responses to call for proposal and kicks off its technical work
  • MPEG finalizes 1st edition of Technical Report on Architectures for Immersive Media
  • MPEG releases software for MPEG-I visual activities
  • MPEG enhances ISO Base Media File Format (ISOBMFF) with new features

MPEG issues Call for Evidence on Compressed Representation of Neural Networks

Artificial neural networks have been adopted for a broad range of tasks in multimedia analysis and processing, media coding, data analytics, translation and many other fields. Their recent success is based on the feasibility of processing much larger and complex neural networks (deep neural networks, DNNs) than in the past, and the availability of large-scale training data sets. As a consequence, trained neural networks contain a large number of parameters (weights), resulting in a quite large size (e.g., several hundred MBs). Many applications require the deployment of a particular trained network instance, potentially to a larger number of devices, which may have limitations in terms of processing power and memory (e.g., mobile devices or smart cameras). Any use case, in which a trained neural network (and its updates) needs to be deployed to a number of devices could thus benefit from a standard for the compressed representation of neural networks.

At its 123rd meeting, MPEG has issued a Call for Evidence (CfE) for compression technology for neural networks. The compression technology will be evaluated in terms of compression efficiency, runtime, and memory consumption and the impact on performance in three use cases: visual object classification, visual feature extraction (as used in MPEG Compact Descriptors for Visual Analysis) and filters for video coding. Responses to the CfE will be analyzed on the weekend prior to and during the 124th MPEG meeting in October 2018 (Macau, CN).

Research aspects: As this is about “compression” of structured data, research aspects will mainly focus around compression efficiency for both lossy and lossless scenarios. Additionally, communication aspects such as transmission of compressed artificial neural networks within lossy, large-scale environments including update mechanisms may become relevant in the (near) future. Furthermore, additional use cases should be communicated towards MPEG until the next meeting.

Network-Based Media Processing – MPEG evaluates responses to call for proposal and kicks off its technical work

Recent developments in multimedia have brought significant innovation and disruption to the way multimedia content is created and consumed. At its 123rd meeting, MPEG analyzed the technologies submitted by eight industry leaders as responses to the Call for Proposals (CfP) for Network-Based Media Processing (NBMP, MPEG-I Part 8). These technologies address advanced media processing use cases such as network stitching for virtual reality (VR) services, super-resolution for enhanced visual quality, transcoding by a mobile edge cloud, or viewport extraction for 360-degree video within the network environment. NBMP allows service providers and end users to describe media processing operations that are to be performed by the entities in the networks. NBMP will describe the composition of network-based media processing services out of a set of NBMP functions and makes these NBMP services accessible through Application Programming Interfaces (APIs).

NBMP will support the existing delivery methods such as streaming, file delivery, push-based progressive download, hybrid delivery, and multipath delivery within heterogeneous network environments. MPEG issued a Call for Proposal (CfP) seeking technologies that allow end-user devices, which are limited in processing capabilities and power consumption, to offload certain kinds of processing to the network.

After a formal evaluation of submissions, MPEG selected three technologies as starting points for the (i) workflow, (ii) metadata, and (iii) interfaces for static and dynamically acquired NBMP. A key conclusion of the evaluation was that NBMP can significantly improve the performance and efficiency of the cloud infrastructure and media processing services.

Research aspects: I reported about NBMP in my previous post and basically the same applies here. NBMP will be particularly interesting in the context of new networking approaches including, but not limited to, software-defined networking (SDN), information-centric networking (ICN), mobile edge computing (MEC), fog computing, and related aspects in the context of 5G.

MPEG finalizes 1st edition of Technical Report on Architectures for Immersive Media

At its 123nd meeting, MPEG finalized the first edition of its Technical Report (TR) on Architectures for Immersive Media. This report constitutes the first part of the MPEG-I standard for the coded representation of immersive media and introduces the eight MPEG-I parts currently under specification in MPEG. In particular, it addresses three Degrees of Freedom (3DoF; three rotational and un-limited movements around the X, Y and Z axes (respectively pitch, yaw and roll)), 3DoF+ (3DoF with additional limited translational movements (typically, head movements) along X, Y and Z axes), and 6DoF (3DoF with full translational movements along X, Y and Z axes) experiences but it mostly focuses on 3DoF. Future versions are expected to cover aspects beyond 3DoF. The report documents use cases and defines architectural views on elements that contribute to an overall immersive experience. Finally, the report also includes quality considerations for immersive services and introduces minimum requirements as well as objectives for a high-quality immersive media experience.

Research aspects: ISO/IEC technical reports are typically publicly available and provides informative descriptions of what the standard is about. In MPEG-I this technical report can be used as a guideline for possible architectures for immersive media. This first edition focuses on three Degrees of Freedom (3DoF; three rotational and un-limited movements around the X, Y and Z axes (respectively pitch, yaw and roll)) and outlines the other degrees of freedom currently foreseen in MPEG-I. It also highlights use cases and quality-related aspects that could be of interest for the research community.

MPEG releases software for MPEG-I visual activities

MPEG-I visual is an activity that addresses the specific requirements of immersive visual media for six degrees of freedom virtual walkthroughs with correct motion parallax within a bounded volume. MPEG-I visual covers application scenarios from 3DoF+ with slight body and head movements in a sitting position to 6DoF allowing some walking steps from a central position. At the 123nd MPEG meeting, an important progress has been achieved in software development. A new Reference View Synthesizer (RVS 2.0) has been released for 3DoF+, allowing to synthesize virtual viewpoints from an unlimited number of input views. RVS integrates code bases from Universite Libre de Bruxelles and Philips, who acted as software coordinator. A Weighted-to-Spherically-uniform PSNR (WS-PSNR) software utility, essential to 3DoF+ and 6DoF activities, has been developed by Zhejiang University. WS-PSNR is a full reference objective quality metric for all flavors of omnidirectional video. RVS and WS-PSNR are essential software tools for the upcoming Call for Proposals on 3DoF+ expected to be released at the 124th MPEG meeting in October 2018 (Macau, CN).

Research aspects: MPEG does not only produce text specifications but also reference software and conformance bitstreams, which are important assets for both research and development. Thus, it is very much appreciated to have a new Reference View Synthesizer (RVS 2.0) and Weighted-to-Spherically-uniform PSNR (WS-PSNR) software utility available which enables interoperability and reproducibility of R&D efforts/results in this area.

MPEG enhances ISO Base Media File Format (ISOBMFF) with new features

At the 123rd MPEG meeting, a couple of new amendments related to ISOBMFF has reached the first milestone. Amendment 2 to ISO/IEC 14496-12 6th edition will add the option to have relative addressing as an alternative to offset addressing, which in some environments and workflows can simplify the handling of files and will allow creation of derived visual tracks using items and samples in other tracks with some transformation, for example rotation. Another amendment reached its first milestone is the first amendment to ISO/IEC 23001-7 3rd edition. It will allow use of multiple keys to a single sample and scramble some parts of AVC or HEVC video bitstreams without breaking conformance to the existing decoders. That is, the bitstream will be decodable by existing decoders, but some parts of the video will be scrambled. It is expected that these amendments will reach the final milestone in Q3 2019.

Research aspects: The ISOBMFF reference software is now available on Github, which is a valuable service to the community and allows for active standard’s participation even from outside of MPEG. It is recommended that interested parties have a look at it and consider contributing to this project.


What else happened at #MPEG123?

  • The MPEG-DASH 3rd edition is finally available as output document (N17813; only available to MPEG members) combining 2nd edition, four amendments, and 2 corrigenda. We expect final publication later this year or early next year.
  • There is a new DASH amendment and corrigenda items in pipeline which should progress to final stages also some time next year. The status of MPEG-DASH (July 2018) can be seen below.

DASHstatus0718

  • MPEG received a rather interesting input document related to “streaming first” which resulted into a publicly available output document entitled “thoughts on adaptive delivery and access to immersive media”. The key idea here is to focus on streaming (first) rather than on file/encapsulation formats typically used for storage (and streaming second). This document should become available here.
  • Since a couple of meetings, MPEG maintains a standardization roadmap highlighting recent/major MPEG standards and documenting the roadmap for the next five years. It definitely worth keeping this in mind when defining/updating your own roadmap.
  • JVET/VVC issued Working Draft 2 of Versatile Video Coding (N17732 | JVET-K1001) and Test Model 2 of Versatile Video Coding (VTM 2) (N17733 | JVET-K1002). Please note that N-documents are MPEG internal but JVET-documents are publicly accessible here: http://phenix.it-sudparis.eu/jvet/. An interesting aspect is that VTM2/WD2 should have >20% rate reduction compared to HEVC, all with reasonable complexity and the next benchmark set (BMS) should have close to 30% rate reduction vs. HEVC. Further improvements expected from (a) improved merge, intra prediction, etc., (b) decoder-side estimation with low complexity, (c) multi-hypothesis prediction and OBMC, (d) diagonal and other geometric partitioning, (e) secondary transforms, (f) new approaches of loop filtering, reconstruction and prediction filtering (denoising, non-local, diffusion based, bilateral, etc.), (g) current picture referencing, palette, and (h) neural networks.
  • In addition to VVC — which is a joint activity with VCEG –, MPEG is working on two video-related exploration activities, namely (a) an enhanced quality profile of the AVC standard and (b) a low complexity enhancement video codec. Both topics will be further discussed within respective Ad-hoc Groups (AhGs) and further details are available here.
  • Finally, MPEG established an Ad-hoc Group (AhG) dedicated to the long-term planning which is also looking into application areas/domains other than media coding/representation.

In this context it is probably worth mentioning the following DASH awards at recent conferences

Additionally, there have been two tutorials at ICME related to MPEG standards, which you may find interesting

JPEG Column: 79th JPEG Meeting in La Jolla, California, U.S.A.

The JPEG Committee had its 79th meeting in La Jolla, California, U.S.A., from 9 to 15 April 2018.

During this meeting, JPEG had a final celebration of the 25th anniversary of its first JPEG standard, usually known as JPEG-1. This celebration coincides with two interesting facts. The first was the approval of a reference software for JPEG-1, “only” after 25 years. At the time of approval of the first JPEG standard a reference software was not considered, as it is common in recent image standards. However, the JPEG committee decided that was still important to provide a reference software, as current applications and standards can largely benefit on this specification. The second coincidence was the launch of a call for proposals for a next generation image coding standard, JPEG XL. This standard will define a new representation format for Photographic information, that includes the current technological developments, and can become an alternative to the 25 years old JPEG standard.

An informative two-hour JPEG Technologies Workshop marked the 25th anniversary celebration on Friday April 13, 2018. The workshop had presentations of several committee members on the current and future JPEG committee activity, with the following program:

IMG_4560

Touradj Ebrahimi, convenor of JPEG, presenting an overview of JPEG technologies.

  • Overview of JPEG activities, by Touradj Ebrahimi
  • JPEG XS by Antonin Descampe and Thomas Richter
  • HTJ2K by Pierre-Anthony Lemieux
  • JPEG Pleno – Light Field, Point Cloud, Holography by Ioan Tabus, Antonio Pinheiro, Peter Schelkens
  • JPEG Systems – Privacy and Security, 360 by Siegfried Foessel, Frederik Temmermans, Andy Kuzma
  • JPEG XL by Fernando Pereira, Jan De Cock

After the workshop, a social event was organized where a past JPEG committee Convenor, Eric Hamilton was recognized for key contributions to the JPEG standardization.

La Jolla JPEG meetings comprise mainly the following highlights:

  • Call for proposals of a next generation image coding standard, JPEG XL
  • JPEG XS profiles and levels definition
  • JPEG Systems defines a 360 degree format
  • HTJ2K
  • JPEG Pleno
  • JPEG XT
  • Approval of the JPEG Reference Software

The following summarizes various activities during JPEG’s La Jolla meeting.

JPEG XL

Billions of images are captured, stored and shared on a daily basis demonstrating the self-evident need for efficient image compression. Applications, websites and user interfaces are increasingly relying on images to share experiences, stories, visual information and appealing designs.

User interfaces can target devices with stringent constraints on network connection and/or power consumption in bandwidth constrained environments. Even though network capacities are improving globally, bandwidth is constrained to levels that inhibit application responsiveness in many situations. User interfaces that utilize images containing larger resolutions, higher dynamic ranges, wider color gamuts and higher bit depths, further contribute to larger volumes of data in higher bandwidth environments.

The JPEG Committee has launched a Next Generation Image Coding activity, referred to as JPEG XL. This activity aims to develop a standard for image coding that offers substantially better compression efficiency than existing image formats (e.g. more than 60% improvement when compared to the widely used legacy JPEG format), along with features desirable for web distribution and efficient compression of high-quality images.

To this end, the JPEG Committee has issued a Call for Proposals following its 79th meeting in April 2018, with the objective of seeking technologies that fulfill the objectives and scope of a Next Generation Image Coding. The Call for Proposals (CfP), with all related info, can be found at jpeg.org. The deadline for expression of interest and registration is August 15, 2018, and submissions to the Call are due September 1, 2018. To stay posted on the action plan for JPEG XL, please regularly consult our website at jpeg.org and/or subscribe to our e-mail reflector.

 

JPEG XS

This project aims at the standardization of a visually lossless low-latency lightweight compression scheme that can be used as a mezzanine codec for the broadcast industry, Pro-AV and other markets such as VR/AR/MR applications and autonomous cars. Among important use cases identified one can mention in particular video transport over professional video links (SDI, IP, Ethernet), real-time video storage, memory buffers, omnidirectional video capture and rendering, and sensor compression in the automotive industry. During the La Jolla meeting, profiles and levels have been defined to help implementers accurately size their design for their specific use cases. Transport of JPEG XS over IP networks or SDI infrastructures, are also being specified and will be finalized during the next JPEG meeting in Berlin (July 9-13, 2018). The JPEG committee therefore invites interested parties, in particular coding experts, codec providers, system integrators and potential users of the foreseen solutions, to contribute to the specification process. Publication of the core coding system as an International Standard is expected in Q4 2018.

 

JPEG Systems – JPEG 360

The JPEG Committee continues to make progress towards its goals to define a common framework and definitions for metadata which will improve the ability to share 360 images and provide the basis to enable new user interaction with images.  At the 79th JPEG meeting in La Jolla, the JPEG committee received responses to a call for proposals it issued for JPEG 360 metadata. As a result, JPEG Systems is readying a committee draft of “JPEG Universal Metadata Box Format (JUMBF)” as ISO/IEC 19566-5, and “JPEG 360” as ISO/IEC 19566-6.  The box structure defined by JUMBF allows JPEG 360 to define a flexible metadata schema and the ability to link JPEG code streams embedded in the file. It also allows keeping unstitched image elements for omnidirectional captures together with the main image and descriptive metadata in a single file.  Furthermore, JUMBF lays the groundwork for a uniform approach to integrate tools satisfying the emerging requirements for privacy and security metadata.

To stay posted on JPEG 360, please regularly consult our website at jpeg.org and/or subscribe to the JPEG 360 e-mail reflector. 

 

HTJ2K

High Throughput JPEG 2000 (HTJ2K) aims to develop an alternate block-coding algorithm that can be used in place of the existing block coding algorithm specified in ISO/IEC 15444-1 (JPEG 2000 Part 1). The objective is to significantly increase the throughput of JPEG 2000, at the expense of a small reduction in coding efficiency, while allowing mathematically lossless transcoding to and from codestreams using the existing block coding algorithm.

As a result of a Call for Proposals issued at its 76th meeting, the JPEG Committee has selected a block-coding algorithm as the basis for Part 15 of the JPEG 2000 suite of standards, known as High Throughput JPEG 2000 (HTJ2K). The algorithm has demonstrated an average tenfold increase in encoding and decoding throughput, compared to the algorithms based on JPEG 2000 Part 1. This increase in throughput results in less than 15% average loss in coding efficiency, and allows mathematically lossless transcoding to and from JPEG 2000 Part 1 codestreams.

A Working Draft of Part 15 to the JPEG 2000 suite of standards is now under development.

 

JPEG Pleno

The JPEG Committee is currently pursuing three activities in the framework of the JPEG Pleno Standardization: Light Field, Point Cloud and Holographic content coding.

JPEG Pleno Light Field finished a third round of core experiments for assessing the impact of individual coding modules and started work on creating software for a verification model. Moreover, additional test data has been studied and approved for use in future core experiments. Working Draft documents for JPEG Pleno specifications Part 1 and Part 2 were updated. A JPEG Pleno Light Field AhG was established with mandates to create a common test conditions document; perform exploration studies on new datasets, quality metrics, and random-access performance indicators; and to update the working draft documents for Part 1 and Part 2.

Furthermore, use cases were studied and are under consideration for JPEG Pleno Point Cloud. A current draft list is under discussion for the next period and will be updated and mapped to the JPEG Pleno requirements. A final document on use cases and requirements for JPEG Pleno Point Cloud is expected at the next meeting.

JPEG Pleno Holography has reviewed the draft of a holography overview document. Moreover, the current databases were classified according to use cases, and plans to analyze numerical reconstruction tools were established.

 

JPEG XT

The JPEG Committee released two corrigenda to JPEG XT Part 1 (core coding system) and JPEG XT Part 8 (lossless extension JPEG-1). These corrigenda clarify the upsampling procedure for chroma-subsampled images by adopting the centered upsampling in use by JFIF.

 

JPEG Reference Software

The JPEG Committee is pleased to announce that the CD ballot for Reference Software has been issued for the original JPEG-1 standard. This initiative closes a long-standing gap in the legacy JPEG standard by providing two reference implementations for this widely used and popular image coding format.

Final Quote

The JPEG Committee is hopeful to see its recently launched Next Generation Image Coding, JPEG XL, can result in a format that will become as important for imaging products and services as its predecessor was; the widely used and popular legacy JPEG format which has been in service for a quarter of century. said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

About JPEG

The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is a Working Group of ISO/IEC, the International Organisation for Standardization / International Electrotechnical Commission, (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) and of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T SG16), responsible for the popular JBIG, JPEG, JPEG 2000, JPEG XR, JPSearch and more recently, the JPEG XT, JPEG XS, JPEG Systems and JPEG Pleno families of imaging standards.

The JPEG Committee nominally meets four times a year, in different world locations. The 79th JPEG Meeting was held on 9-15 April 2018, in La Jolla, California, USA. The next 80th JPEG Meeting will be held on 7-13, July 2018, in Berlin, Germany.

More information about JPEG and its work is available at www.jpeg.org or by contacting Antonio Pinheiro or Frederik Temmermans (pr@jpeg.org) of the JPEG Communication Subgroup.

If you would like to stay posted on JPEG activities, please subscribe to the jpeg-news mailing list on http://jpeg-news-list.jpeg.org.  

 

Future JPEG meetings are planned as follows:JPEG-signature

  • No 80, Berlin, Germany, July 7 to13, 2018
  • No 81, Vancouver, Canada, October 13 to 19, 2018
  • No 82, Lisbon, Portugal, January 19 to 25, 2019

MPEG Column: 122nd MPEG Meeting in San Diego, CA, USA

The original blog post can be found at the Bitmovin Techblog and has been modified/updated here to focus on and highlight research aspects.

MPEG122 Plenary, San Diego, CA, USA.

MPEG122 Plenary, San Diego, CA, USA.

The MPEG press release comprises the following topics:

  • Versatile Video Coding (VVC) project starts strongly in the Joint Video Experts Team
  • MPEG issues Call for Proposals on Network-based Media Processing
  • MPEG finalizes 7th edition of MPEG-2 Systems Standard
  • MPEG enhances ISO Base Media File Format (ISOBMFF) with two new features
  • MPEG-G standards reach Draft International Standard for transport and compression technologies

Versatile Video Coding (VVC) – MPEG’ & VCEG’s new video coding project starts strong

The Joint Video Experts Team (JVET), a collaborative team formed by MPEG and ITU-T Study Group 16’s VCEG, commenced work on a new video coding standard referred to as Versatile Video Coding (VVC). The goal of VVC is to provide significant improvements in compression performance over the existing HEVC standard (i.e., typically twice as much as before) and to be completed in 2020. The main target applications and services include — but not limited to — 360-degree and high-dynamic-range (HDR) videos. In total, JVET evaluated responses from 32 organizations using formal subjective tests conducted by independent test labs. Interestingly, some proposals demonstrated compression efficiency gains of typically 40% or more when compared to using HEVC. Particular effectiveness was shown on ultra-high definition (UHD) video test material. Thus, we may expect compression efficiency gains well-beyond the targeted 50% for the final standard.

Research aspects: Compression tools and everything around it including its objective and subjective assessment. The main application area is clearly 360-degree and HDR. Watch out conferences like PCS and ICIP (later this year), which will be full of papers making references to VVC. Interestingly, VVC comes with a first draft, a test model for simulation experiments, and a technology benchmark set which is useful and important for any developments for both inside and outside MPEG as it allows for reproducibility.

MPEG issues Call for Proposals on Network-based Media Processing

This Call for Proposals (CfP) addresses advanced media processing technologies such as network stitching for VR service, super resolution for enhanced visual quality, transcoding, and viewport extraction for 360-degree video within the network environment that allows service providers and end users to describe media processing operations that are to be performed by the network. Therefore, the aim of network-based media processing (NBMP) is to allow end user devices to offload certain kinds of processing to the network. Therefore, NBMP describes the composition of network-based media processing services based on a set of media processing functions and makes them accessible through Application Programming Interfaces (APIs). Responses to the NBMP CfP will be evaluated on the weekend prior to the 123rd MPEG meeting in July 2018.

Research aspects: This project reminds me a lot about what has been done in the past in MPEG-21, specifically Digital Item Adaptation (DIA) and Digital Item Processing (DIP). The main difference is that MPEG targets APIs rather than pure metadata formats, which is a step forward into the right direction as APIs can be implemented and used right away. NBMP will be particularly interesting in the context of new networking approaches including, but not limited to, software-defined networking (SDN), information-centric networking (ICN), mobile edge computing (MEC), fog computing, and related aspects in the context of 5G.

7th edition of MPEG-2 Systems Standard and ISO Base Media File Format (ISOBMFF) with two new features

More than 20 years since its inception development of MPEG-2 systems technology (i.e., transport/program stream) continues. New features include support for: (i) JPEG 2000 video with 4K resolution and ultra-low latency, (ii) media orchestration related metadata, (iii) sample variance, and (iv) HEVC tiles.

The partial file format enables the description of an ISOBMFF file partially received over lossy communication channels. This format provides tools to describe reception data, the received data and document transmission information such as received or lost byte ranges and whether the corrupted/lost bytes are present in the file and repair information such as location of the source file, possible byte offsets in that source, byte stream position at which a parser can try processing a corrupted file. Depending on the communication channel, this information may be setup by the receiver or through out-of-band means.

ISOBMFF’s sample variants (2nd edition), which are typically used to provide forensic information in the rendered sample data that can, for example, identify the specific Digital Rights Management (DRM) client which has decrypted the content. This variant framework is intended to be fully compatible with MPEG’s Common Encryption (CENC) and agnostic to the particular forensic marking system used.

Research aspects: MPEG systems standards are mainly relevant for multimedia systems research with all its characteristics. The partial file format is specifically interesting as it targets scenarios with lossy communication channels.

MPEG-G standards reach Draft International Standard for transport and compression technologies

MPEG-G provides a set of standards enabling interoperability for applications and services dealing with high-throughput deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing. At its 122nd meeting, MPEG promoted its core set of MPEG-G specifications, i.e., transport and compression technologies, to Draft International Standard (DIS) stage. Such parts of the standard provide new transport technologies (ISO/IEC 23092-1) and compression technologies (ISO/IEC 23092-2) supporting rich functionality for the access and transport including streaming of genomic data by interoperable applications. Reference software (ISO/IEC 23092-4) and conformance (ISO/IEC 23092-5) will reach this stage in the next 12 months.

Research aspects: the main focus of this work item is compression and transport is still in its infancy. Therefore, research on the actual delivery for compressed DNA information as well as its processing is solicited.

What else happened at MPEG122?

  • Requirements is exploring new video coding tools dealing with low-complexity and process enhancements.
  • The activity around coded representation of neural networks has defined a set of vital use cases and is now calling for test data to be solicited until the next meeting.
  • The MP4 registration authority (MP4RA) has a new awesome web site http://mp4ra.org/.
  • MPEG-DASH is finally approving and working the 3rd edition comprising consolidated version of recent amendments and corrigenda.
  • CMAF started an exploration on multi-stream support, which could be relevant for tiled streaming and multi-channel audio.
  • OMAF kicked-off its activity towards a 2nd edition enabling support for 3DoF+ and social VR with the plan going to committee draft (CD) in Oct’18. Additionally, there’s a test framework proposed, which allows to assess performance of various CMAF tools. Its main focus is on video but MPEG’s audio subgroup has a similar framework to enable subjective testing. It could be interesting seeing these two frameworks combined in one way or the other.
  • MPEG-I architectures (yes plural) are becoming mature and I think this technical report will become available very soon. In terms of video, MPEG-I looks more closer at 3DoF+ defining common test conditions and a call for proposals (CfP) planned for MPEG123 in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Additionally, explorations for 6DoF and compression of dense representation of light fields are ongoing and have been started, respectively.
  • Finally, point cloud compression (PCC) is in its hot phase of core experiments for various coding tools resulting into updated versions of the test model and working draft.

Research aspects: In this section I would like to focus on DASH, CMAF, and OMAF. Multi-stream support, as mentioned above, is relevant for tiled streaming and multi-channel audio which has been recently studied in the literature and is also highly relevant for industry. The efficient storage and streaming of such kind of content within the file format is an important aspect and often underrepresented in both research and standardization. The goal here is to keep the overhead low while maximizing the utility of the format to enable certain functionalities. OMAF now targets the social VR use case, which has been discussed in the research literature for a while and, finally, makes its way into standardization. An important aspect here is both user and quality of experience, which requires intensive subjective testing.

Finally, on May 10 MPEG will celebrate 30 years as its first meeting dates back to 1988 in Ottawa, Canada with around 30 attendees. The 122nd meeting had more than 500 attendees and MPEG has around 20 active work items. A total of more than 170 standards have been produces (that’s approx. six standards per year) where some standards have up to nine editions like the HEVC standards. Overall, MPEG is responsible for more that 23% of all JTC 1 standards and some of them showing extraordinary longevity regarding extensions, e.g., MPEG-2 systems (24 years), MPEG-4 file format (19 years), and AVC (15 years). MPEG standards serve billions of users (e.g., MPEG-1 video, MP2, MP3, AAC, MPEG-2, AVC, ISOBMFF, DASH). Some — more precisely five — standards have receive Emmy awards in the past (MPEG-1, MPEG-2, AVC (2x), and HEVC).

Thus, happy birthday MPEG! In today’s society starts the high performance era with 30 years, basically the time of “compression”, i.e., we apply all what we learnt and live out everything, truly optimistic perspective for our generation X (millennials) standards body!

JPEG Column: 78th JPEG Meeting in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The JPEG Committee had its 78th meeting in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Relevant to its ongoing standardization efforts in JPEG Privacy and Security, JPEG organized a special session to explore how to support blockchain and distributed ledger technologies to past, ongoing and future JPEG family of standards. This is motivated by the fact that considering the potential impact of such technologies in the future of multimedia, standardization will be required to enable interoperability between different systems and services of imaging relying on blockchain and distributed ledger technologies.

Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies are behind the well-known crypto-currencies. These technologies can provide means for content authorship, or intellectual property and rights management control of the multimedia information. New possibilities can be made available, namely support for tracking online use of copyrighted images and ownership of the digital content.

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JPEG meeting session.

Rio de Janeiro JPEG meetings comprise mainly the following highlights:

  • JPEG explores blockchain and distributed ledger technologies
  • JPEG 360 Metadata
  • JPEG XL
  • JPEG XS
  • JPEG Pleno
  • JPEG Reference Software
  • JPEG 25th anniversary of the first JPEG standard

The following summarizes various activities during JPEG’s Rio de Janeiro meeting.

JPEG explores blockchain and distributed ledger technologies

During the 78th JPEG meeting in Rio de Janeiro, the JPEG committee organized a special session on blockchain and distributed ledger technologies and their impact on JPEG standards. As a result, the committee decided to explore use cases and standardization needs related to blockchain technology in a multimedia context. Use cases will be explored in relation to the recently launched JPEG Privacy and Security, as well as in the broader landscape of imaging and multimedia applications. To that end, the committee created an ad hoc group with the aim to gather input from experts to define these use cases and to explore eventual needs and advantages to support a standardization effort focused on imaging and multimedia applications. To get involved in the discussion, interested parties can register to the ad hoc group’s mailing list. Instructions to join the list are available on http://jpeg-blockchain-list.jpeg.org

JPEG 360 Metadata

The JPEG Committee notes the increasing use of multi-sensor images from multi-sensor devices, such as 360 degree capturing cameras or dual-camera smartphones available to consumers. Images from these cameras are shown on computers, smartphones, and Head Mounted Displays (HMDs). JPEG standards are commonly used for image compression and file format. However, because existing JPEG standards do not fully cover these new uses, incompatibilities have reduced the interoperability of their images, and thus reducing the widespread ubiquity, which consumers have come to expect when using JPEG files. Additionally, new modalities for interacting with images, such as computer-based augmentation, face-tagging, and object classification, require support for metadata that was not part of the original scope of JPEG.  A set of such JPEG 360 use cases is described in JPEG 360 Metadata Use Cases document. 

To avoid fragmentation in the market and to ensure wide interoperability, a standard way of interacting with multi-sensor images with richer metadata is desired in JPEG standards. JPEG invites all interested parties, including manufacturers, vendors and users of such devices to submit technology proposals for enabling interactions with multi-sensor images and metadata that fulfill the scope, objectives and requirements that are outlined in the final Call for Proposals, available on the JPEG website.

To stay posted on JPEG 360, please regularly consult our website at jpeg.org and/or subscribe to the JPEG 360 e-mail reflector.

JPEG XL

The Next-Generation Image Compression activity (JPEG XL) has produced a revised draft Call for Proposals, and intends to publish a final Call for Proposals (CfP) following its 79th meeting (April 2018), with the objective of seeking technologies that fulfill the objectives and scope of the Next-Generation Image Compression. During the 78th meeting, objective and subjective quality assessment methodologies for anchor and proposal evaluations were discussed and analyzed. As outcome of the meeting, source code for objective quality assessment has been made available.

The draft Call for Proposals, with all related info, can be found in JPEG website. Comments are welcome and should be submitted as specified in the document. To stay posted on the action plan for JPEG XL, please regularly consult our website at jpeg.org and/or subscribe to our e-mail reflector.

 

JPEG XS

Since its previous 77th meeting, subjective quality evaluations have shown that the initial quality requirement of the JPEG XS Core Coding System has been met, i.e. a visually lossless quality at a compression ratio of 6:1 for large majority of images under test has been met. Several profiles are now under development in JPEG XS, as well as transport and container formats. JPEG committee therefore invites interested parties – in particular coding experts, codec providers, system integrators and potential users of the foreseen solutions – to contribute to the furthering of the specifications in the above directions. Publication of the International Standard is expected for Q3 2018.

JPEG Pleno

JPEG Pleno activity is currently divided into Pleno Light Field, Pleno Point Cloud and Pleno Holography. JPEG Pleno Light Field has been preparing a third round of core experiments for assessing the impact of individual coding modules on the overall rate-distortion performance. Moreover, it was decided to pursue with collecting additional test data, and progress with the preparation of working documents for JPEG Pleno specifications Part 1 and Part 2.

Furthermore, quality modelling studies are under consideration for both JPEG Pleno Point Clouds, and JPEG Pleno Holography. In particular, JPEG Pleno Point Cloud is considering a set of new quality metrics provided as contributions to this work item. It is expected that the new metrics replace the current state of the art as they have shown superior correlation with subjective quality as perceived by humans. Moreover, new subjective assessment models have been tested and analysed to better understand the perception of quality for such new types of visual information.

JPEG Reference Software

The JPEG committee is pleased to announce that its first JPEG image coding specifications is now augmented by a new part, ISO/IEC 10918-7, that contains a reference software. The proposed candidate software implementations have been checked for compliance with 10918-2. Considering the positive results, this new part of the JPEG standard will continue to evolve quickly. 

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JPEG meeting room window view during a break.

JPEG 25th anniversary of the first JPEG standard

JPEG’s first standard third and final 25th anniversary celebration is planned at its next 79th JPEG meeting taking place in La Jolla, CA, USA. The anniversary will be marked by a 2 hours workshop on Friday 13th April on current and emerging JPEG technologies, followed by a social event where past JPEG committee members with relevant contributions will be awarded.

Final Quote

“Blockchain and distributed ledger technologies promise a significant impact on the future of many fields. JPEG is committed to provide standard mechanisms to apply blockchain on multimedia applications in general and on imaging in particular. said Prof. Touradj Ebrahimi, the Convenor of the JPEG Committee.

 

About JPEG

The Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) is a Working Group of ISO/IEC, the International Organisation for Standardization / International Electrotechnical Commission, (ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 29/WG 1) and of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T SG16), responsible for the popular JBIG, JPEG, JPEG 2000, JPEG XR, JPSearch and more recently, the JPEG XT, JPEG XS, JPEG Systems and JPEG Pleno families of imaging standards.

The JPEG Committee meets nominally four times a year, in different world locations. The latest 77th meeting was held from 21st to 27th of October 2017, in Macau, China. The next 79th JPEG Meeting will be held on 9-15 April 2018, in La Jolla, California, USA.

More information about JPEG and its work is available at www.jpeg.org or by contacting Antonio Pinheiro or Frederik Temmermans (pr@jpeg.org) of the JPEG Communication Subgroup.

If you would like to stay posted on JPEG activities, please subscribe to the jpeg-news mailing list on http://jpeg-news-list.jpeg.org.  

Future JPEG meetings are planned as follows:

  • No 79, La Jolla (San Diego), CA, USA, April 9 to 15, 2018
  • No 80, Berlin, Germany, July 7 to13, 2018
  • No 81, Vancouver, Canada, October 13 to 19, 2018